Mining exploitation and institutionality in 21st century Venezuela

The area recovery plans are generated from an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) which is a requirement by law, to develop an excavation, either in the open or underground. Both the mine exploitation plan and the environmental recovery plan must be arbitrated by sound and competent institutions in order to carry out the pertinent evaluations, corrections, and subsequent inspections, respecting the country’s laws and regulations.

Current situation of auriferous (gold) mining and other minerals

That is when pollution of water bodies, their biota, the miners, and residents of nearby communities begins. The use of mercury becomes commonplace. The main difference between isolated concessionaires and miners is the efficiency with which they recover the gold, and therefore, the degree of exposure to mercury vapors. By 1989 and 1993 [3], there already were reports of miners, inhabitants, and fish contaminated with mercury. 

Ecological Economy South of the Orinoco

With about 37.5 million hectares of forest cover south of the Orinoco, the region has enormous potential for climate regulation services. The 7.2 million hectares currently committed to the Orinoco Mining Arc, represent around $1,465 million/year in opportunity cost, based on an estimated value of the global unitary climate regulation of the tropical forest of $2,044/ha/year (Groot et al. 2012).